​​​​​  ↵​The case studies below are taken from real-life examples in Kingston and Richmond. We want to make this a "living" resource so we encourage schools, parents and young people to send us examples of reasonable adjustments that have been made. Please send your suggestions through the Contact Us form on this website.

Mobility Issues

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

Reasonable adjustment made

Brittle Bone Disease

Child requested to have more independence

Teacher

The child has been given their own set of keys, and a buddy to accompany them in the lift

Mobility difficulties

Getting around the school

Teacher

Adjustments to seating area and width and surface of pathways to accommodate walker/standing frame/chair. Buddies assist with sitting and an evac chair accommodates movement to the upper storey.

No independent mobility

Using incontinence / nappy  pads

Teacher

Moving and handling training for staff involved. Electric height adjustable changing table

Weak fine motor skills due to physical disability

Note taking due to slow writing and hand weakness

Teacher

The child was given a dictaphone to record the teacher. The child also had a laptop to use to type any notes.

Wheelchair user

Two people required for all handling tasks

Teacher

Additional adults in place at key moments throughout the day: morning and end of day to transfer from home wheelchair to school chair, lunchtime to assist with toileting, PE/swimming lessons.

Child with clubfoot

Difficulty walking on long trips

Teacher

He can take his scooter or frame to help.

Child using a walking frame

Manage negotiating the classroom, including access to the toilet

Teacher

A rail was installed in the toilet for the child to negotiate onto the toilet. The school also ensured there was sufficient space between tables and floor activities for the child to use the frame.

Child using a walker

Lifting walker up steps into classroom

Teacher

Portable ramp that is moved to outside his classroom each year.

Wheelchair user

Need for physio to take place during the day

Teacher

Small room space provided for physio bed.

School purchased hoist. Teaching assistants trained.

Lesson time given over to physio.

Reduced mobility

Mobility around school that has four floors and several mezzanine sections and use of specialist chair

Teacher

All staff aware of difficulty via online inclusion register with photograph, pupil profile and various strategies for individual students.

Pupil carries walkie talkie and lift key with them at all times.

All staff required to provide an accessible space in their individual classrooms.

Pupil to leave class five minutes early to avoid rush.

Separate fire evacuation policy that all staff are aware of.

Pupil has a lift buddy.

All staff have regular emails re updates and are required to let pupils know in advance of any change of room.

Limited use of left side

Has difficulty carrying lunch tray

Teacher

Kitchen staff keep non-slip mats so that her meal is served alongside all her peers - thus preventing adult intervention.

Physical disability

Impaired walking, requiring a frame in school and wheelchair outside school

Teacher

Easily openable and lockable room for chair/frame.

Lift key, can use lift with another student if has mobile phone.

Wheelchair user with gross motor skills impaired.

Access to toilet, classrooms and school trips

Teacher

Two support assistants to overlap for physio and comfort break. All lessons downstairs. Staff trained for access bus driving so school trips can be readily undertaken.

Full time wheelchair users

Physical access around the school for lunch, access to learning, fire safety etc.

Teacher

Specialist equipment in canteen.

IPad/computer access.

Specialist subject equipment, e.g. food tech, D.T.

Physical support during P.E. and specialised gym equipment.

Access to gym instructor.

Fire drill timetables/evacuation plan.

Adjustable tables and chairs in classrooms.

Providing time for walker/standing frame.

Staff on duty for toilet assistance.

Recorder pens and dictaphone.

Access to support on day trips.

Right side weakness

Difficulty writing

Teacher

Equipment supplied to support: seat wedge, plastic writing stand, laptop in classroom.

Wheelchair user

Mobility around site and emergency evacuation procedure

Teacher

The young person’s lessons have all been moved to the ground floor on his timetable (except when in our new building where there is a lift).

Personal evacuation plan during fire alarms, whole year group is seated nearest fire exits during whole schools assembly.

Wheelchair user

Healthcare - toilets, hoisting,

Powered wheelchair

Teacher

A changing bed, overhead hoist and special toilet seat were installed. Two teaching assistants assist with eating. Ramps fitted to all classrooms downstairs as she progresses through the school and when she reaches upper classes, they will be downstairs.

The school has arranged for the child’s parents to drive through school gates and deliver her to school early. At lunchtime, more space has been created for her wheelchair.

Wheelchair user

Being able to eat in the school hall with peers

Teacher

Set place to eat, 1:1 adult support, specially adapted cutlery, wheelchair adjustments under supervision from occupational therapist.

Wheelchair user

Lift broke and parts would take some time to arrive

Teacher

All classes with that student in re-roomed in classrooms that were accessible to the student.

Wheelchair user

Access from room to room - different levels - wheelchair difficult to manoeuvre,

Toilet visit - pupil unable to hold door to get chair in,

Pupil unable to sit at table with peers

Teacher

School premises staff made ramps for doorways,

Toilet buddies arranged,

Wooden box made to raise feet so that wheelchair rest could be removed and chair then able to be pushed under table for access.

Physical disability

Sports day

Young person

Ensure that sports day includes accessible events and ones that the pupil with disability can shine at: for example crawling race, boccia, darts, snooker/pool, indoor rowing, seated volleyball.

Physical disability

Unable to use stairs, often late for lessons as has to wait for staff to give access to lift

Young person

Give young person key to the lift after being assured of ability to use lift safely and responsibly

Physical disability

Pupil is able to walk but does so slowly and gets tired. School is large spread out site. Pupil is often late for lessons

Young person

Timetable lessons in rooms close together as much as possible

Children with reduced mobility

Cannot access the new playground climbing frame at any of the 4 access points

Parent

Parent shares the type of access that is suitable for the children in question, offering photos of equipment in a local park. School agrees to alter one of the access points from an upright ladder to an inclined step style ladder.


 

Personal Care

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

ASD

Not toilet trained

Teacher

The intimate care policy was updated and staff identified to assist in such instances. The installation of the shower now also allows the school to deal with similar issues for other pupils.

Child with a vesicostomy

Changing nappies, cleaning

Teacher

Purchased mat, gloves, disposal bucket, aprons. Developing intimate care policy and record keeping. Training for staff. Timetable for changing and rota. Provision of dedicated space and time. Accessible toilet already in place.

Lack of bladder and bowel control

Child needs pad on all the time and changed regularly,

Needs to be catheterised 4 times a day

Teacher

Trained staff on catheter and pad changing. Accessible toilet equipped with supplies.

Physical disability

Requires access to disabled toilet though able to use independently, spends time waiting for staff to get toilet access and this makes her late for lessons (and desperate!)

Young person

Give young person a key for the toilet and agree health and safety protocols


 

Visual Impairment

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

Blindness

Tripping and falling over items

Teacher

Arranged a visit from SENSE and following advice / recommendations, made adjustments to the learning environment by painting white and yellow lines around all posts and doorframes (indoor and outdoor), put down colored mats in the base areas for construction and/or free play activities to decrease the risk of tripping/falling over these items. Painted yellow lines on all steps and raised areas. Created a sensory space in an unused cloakroom which has been furnished with visual resources specific to her particular needs.

Cone dystrophy: extreme short sight

Safely moving around school independently,

Unable to pick out writing from background in books/worksheets

Teacher

Painted yellow lines on all steps.

Adjusted all tasks to make them readable by enlarging print/minimising writing on a page.

Staff training.

Use of laptop and Ipad

Adjust contrast/backgrounds on computer screen.

Degenerative eye condition

Pupil is losing sight in both eyes - unable to access/take part in SAT’s and will eventually lose sight

Teacher

Teaching assistant undertaking braille training and school has purchased braille machine. Teaching assistant now able to help teach pupil braille for when eyesight has been lost.

Teaching assistant using whiteboards to enlarge SAT papers etc, so pupil can access.

Nystagmus and Albinism

Unable to access printed materials,

Safety in school and corridors,

Should avoid sun,

Glare problematic,

Safety on trip

Teacher

Sunscreen and hats held in student services.

Care plans in place and instructions for trips.

Seating plan instructions.

Passports issued with strengths and outcomes

INSET to all staff beginning each year and highlighted needs.

Dedicated teaching assistant to make enlargements for teaching staff.

Large screen computer installed in computer rooms

Large screen laptops acquired.

Specialist software installed.

Large print books.

Powerpoints emailed to students.

Kindles purchased.

Severe visual impairment

Safety around the school,

Access in class,

P.E lessons,

Food technology

Teacher

All teachers have details of difficulties and best practice for all visually impaired students and best practice for each individual.

Contrasting doors, stairs, rails etc.

Printouts/handouts enlarged/personalised for student to use.

Use of teacher’s computer.

Additional adult.

Modified activities - e.g. large badminton racket and large yellow shuttlecock.

Visually impaired

Cannot read small text,

Cannot see the board text

Teacher

Sits at front, facing the board. Enlarge all text/handouts to A3 - large print. Large lined paper in books.

 

Large print key words and books

Visually impaired

Cannot read small text

Teacher

Worksheets enlarged to font 28.

Visually impaired

Not able to access normal computer screens

Teacher

Purchase of larger screens.

Visually impaired

Student couldn’t see the board, videos etc. Student found it difficult to make her way around the school. Student is anxious at school

Teacher

Following advice from VI specialists:

  • Laptop provided which links to the teacher’s computer so she could access key information
  • Specialist equipment provided for science practicals
  • Leaves lessons early
  • Buddy for each lesson
  • Seating plans
  • Systems set up to ease anxiety - counselling and ‘go to’ teachers identified

Visually impaired

Seeing work on desk

Teacher

Sloped surface.

Purchased books with thicker lined paper.

Enlarging text, including homework and stories sent home.

Sitting closer to the front of the classroom.


 

Sensory Sensitivity

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

ASD

Behaviour policy

Teacher

Adjustments to sanctions, e.g. internal exclusions/detentions are carried out by known key adult from SEN team in a calm and quiet setting.

ASD

Trailing finger along the walls of the corridor - sensory stimulation

Teacher

Hinge covers put on doors to ensure no fingers are trapped in the hinges of the doors.

ASD

Issues with sensory processing,

Overwhelming environments

Teacher

Provision of simple equipment, wobble cushions, normal cushions, twiddles, weighted items, movement breaks, mats, ear defenders, chewies.

Small group work on Occupational Therapy exercises daily run by teaching assistant. Backward chaining to develop access to difficult situations.

Whole schools use of visual timetable, lanyard visuals, training on using child’s name first and simple language.

Workstations in every class, use of tents, enclosed quiet areas.

ASD

Sensory difficulties

Teacher

Wedge cushions,

Weighted blankets,

Ear defenders.

Autism

Moving from one area of school to another

Teacher

Red line painted on the walls from key rooms that he visited so he could touch the line as he walked along.

Autism

Unstructured times,

Support at busy/noisy times,

Maintaining relaxation or baseline behaviour

Teacher

Learning support as ‘safe-haven’ with different club/activities

Learning support staff and prefects/older students (with/without ASD) on duty

Signposting students to existing clubs or activities

Two minute warning bell for all students to ensure they are prepared/organised for next lesson

ASD lunch club - promoting social interaction

Skipping lunch queues with a pass

Ability to eat food in places other than canteen, such as classrooms.

Autism

Child becomes overstimulated during lesson,

Unable to cope with a large class

Teacher

Provided a quiet room for quiet breaks when needed. A small group room has been turned into his room.

He likes to go outside so the Teaching Assistant takes the learning to him.

Autism

Sensory sensitivity to sound

Teacher

Child to have ear defenders available (all children with ASD to have a quiet space available to calm down when stressed).

‘Sensory integration difficulties associated with ASD’

Difficulty in focussing at carpet/learning input,

Difficulty in embarking on tasks and sustaining focus

Teacher

Cushions to sit on,

Sensory circuit to be accessed before any focus required - throughout the day,

Heavy work/carrying weighted bag,

Special jobs, movement breaks.

Sensory sensitivity

Children who constantly seek sensory input or avoid sensory input

Teacher

Use of ear defenders, minimise visual input, e.g not looking at bright displays etc,

Use of seat cushions, keep weight, fiddle toys etc.

ASD and sensory sensitivity

Dislikes noise, smells and sweatiness of most sports

Young person

Alternative/ individual sports such as pool/snooker, darts, quoits, bowls


 

Access to the Curriculum

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

ADHD

Very disruptive in and around school and in lessons - racking up behaviour points, exclusions and at risk of permanent exclusion. Risk to self - has been showing risky behaviour at home and school.

Teacher

Consultations with parents and other professionals.

Catches put on ‘safe’ area windows to limit width of opening.

Behaviour incidents logged but not penalty points.

Safe area and behaviour plans put in place.

ADHD

Level of distraction within the school

Teacher

An identified free lesson each day.

Exercise breaks.

Give creative responsibilities to the lessons

Start with positives/success books.

ADHD

Can’t concentrate for very long. Very active. Works to own agenda

Teacher

Short term targets (by the minute if necessary).

Reward targets.

Leave class five minutes early - run around the playground and go 5 minutes late to lesson.

ADHD

Difficulty remaining focused through lesson. Impulsive behaviour leading to low level disruption

Teacher

Wobble cushion, Fiddle objects,

Given jobs/regular opportunities to move around the classroom,

In the afternoon (longer session), given opportunity to go for a run,

Personalised behaviour system - call out cards/opportunities before warning is given.

ADHD

Finding difficulty following a series of instructions issued to prepare and complete a task, anxiety levels high/increased agitation evident

Teacher

Time out breaks to calm.

Opportunity to complete task with support in a quiet space in another area of the school, access to calming tools such as stress balls/blu-tack etc.

ADHD

Attendance on a two night residential field trip, child may require additional support,

Child may not be able to handle overnight stay in dormitory style accommodation

Teacher

Child was supported by her regular learning support assistants who knew her and was trusted by the child. A separate room, attached to the dorm, was made available to the child in the event that the dormitory was too stressful. Parents were committed to collecting the child in the event that the child was unable to cope. The trip was very successful.

ADHD

School trips

Teacher

Extra staff 2:1,

Separate transport,

Different lunch arrangements,

Reward system for the child.

ADHD

The child arrives at school unsettled in the morning and is not ‘class ready’ or ‘ready for learning’

Teacher

The child takes part in a physical activity during assembly (keep fit, basketball, goes for a run) before going into class.

ASD

Handwriting issues

Teacher

Sloped surface used when writing,

Large pencil grips.

ASD and sensory difficulties

Becoming anxious, upset, angry,

Loud noises / assembly / fire alarms,

Lack of motivation to complete work / follow instructions,

Dyscalculia / dysgraphia

Teacher

Card for ‘time out’ or ‘calming time’ to go to a quiet place in the room (book corner, calming tent).

Ear defenders for child to wear.

Regular reward time slots - work to earn a reward.

Scribe for writing, write online (computer programme) - teacher can make a word bank, also predicts as you type.

ASD - organisation and anxiety

Child becomes anxious during transition when doesn’t know what is coming next - when moving to another classroom/outside

Teacher

Visual timetable at front of class - referred to at appropriate points during lesson. May need individual visual timetable/task board/motivator etc.

Dyslexia

Writing down ideas

Teacher

Laptop and speech to text software provided in class for writing activities.

Dyslexia

Poor/slow handwriting and presentation,

Memory issues,

Slow processing

Teacher

Laptops purchased by school and loaned out to students for lessons which involve a great deal of writing.

Powerpoints printed and given to student as working document and aide memoir.

Additional time to understand tasks, complete assessments, homework etc. Adapted homework.

Language impairment

Ability to access learning, given difficulties in understanding spoken language.

Ability to express emotions, needs and requests

Teacher

Spoken language is supported by a high level of visuals, e.g usual timetable for class, signs/symbols used to support written/spoken language (e.g toilet), objects held whenever talking about things - particularly when introducing new vocabulary.

Class to adopt set phrases and to sign/gesture,

Non-verbal language is accepted by all as though it was spoken language.

Language impairment

Generating and writing sentences with correct grammatical structures

Teacher

Use of teaching assistant time to pre-teach by creating work bank - mind map/word map.

Child friendly checklist that child can go through independently.

Language impairment

Learning new vocabulary

Teacher

Visual dictionary and thesaurus with A-Z desk prompt to help.

Learning delay

Unable to learn abstract concepts - sensory

Teacher

Number of objects to be used during learning process which could support understanding (soft-hard, smooth-rough, hot-cold, etc.)

Multiple Learning Difficulties

Working below Level 1 at Year 6 and could not access KS2 curriculum

Teacher

Set up experiential learning opportunities to make learning relevant and meaningful.

Social, emotional, behavioural difficulties

The child will run out of class. There is a school trip and the class teacher is concerned about taking the child off site

Teacher

A risk assessment was completed. It was felt that walking to the train station, catching a train and then tube into central London was too risky. The reasonable adjustment made was that the child travelled to the museum in a taxi with an learning support assistant. He planned his own route around the museum following his own interests with planned opportunities for meeting up with his class at lunchtime for a picnic lunch. A taxi collected him early and he returned to school following a successful trip.

Physical disability, works slowly

Insufficient time to show her capabilities in exams

Young person

Ensure that school applies for access arrangements that are permitted in each case: for instance up to 100% extra time plus rest breaks can be awarded in some cases.

Pupil requires ICT to record in lessons at secondary school

Having to go and sign out a laptop from the support department makes the pupil late for lessons and makes them ‘different’

Young person

Have laptops available for all in subject departments so they are easily available. All laptops have supportive software loaded as standard.


 

Medical Needs

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

Allergies

Severe allergies resulting in hospitalisation if she comes into contact with certain substances

Teacher

Separate lunch table for the child, as well as training for staff.

Child with cancer

Tired, sensitive to sun, needs chemotherapy during school, line/box in chest to receive chemotherapy

Teacher

Rest breaks during school to lie down and rest, playtime extended into shaded early years area (he was year 3) to add year 3 pupils into play area. Allowed to change in toilets. Chemo was arranged with school nurse and done in school (ice lollies and reading books available to him).

Diabetes

Family and child wanted him to go on a 5-day school trip

Teacher

In preparation for the trip, a member of teaching staff and teaching assistant who were going on the journey attended training at St. Thomas Hospital for a day prior to the trip. Meetings were also organised with parents leading up to the trip and with the residential centre and a risk assessment in place for him, should a problem arise.

Diabetes

Insulin levels to be checked regularly

Food/drinks to be had at particular points of the day

Teacher

Staff trained on how to support her.

Office staff to supervise her taking snacks and remind her if she has not arrived. Increased numbers of staff in her year group first aid trained.

Diabetes

Ensuring that insulin has been taken, allowing for student to have lunch

Teacher

Plan written down.

Head of Year, Pastoral Support Officer, tutor and any other teacher who teaches lesson before lunch reminds child to take insulin.

Sixth former plus diabetic member of staff check students (year 7) have eaten lunch. Book in medical room signed by pupil and observed by medical staff every day.

Students and teachers trained by diabetic nurse to recognise hypo/hyper diabetes.

Epilepsy

Seizures in lessons and medication to be administered

Teacher

‘Young epilepsy’ INSET to staff.

Passport for student information to all staff.

Care plan made with health professionals.

Training for all staff re medication and seizure management continued each year.

Epilepsy

Child gets very tired which increased likelihood of seizures

Teacher

Two days went home at lunchtime. Organised therapy sessions around this so that he did not miss out on this. Sometimes allowed to have a nap during the school day.

Residential trip organised transport so that he could come for 2 days instead of full week. Also organised for him to sleep in a room that had an adjoining door to the teacher’s bedroom.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy triggered by tiredness. When tired or stressed, the child suffers from absences

Teacher

Provided a quiet area with cushions to enable them to lie down and have a rest.

Physical disability

Absent from school for frequent surgery means never gets attendance award and has been sent warning letters re: attendance

Young person

Offer award for attendance at all times when not in hospital. Do not send automatic attendance warning letters when reason for absence is surgery.


 

Hearing and Speech Impairment

 

SEND

Problem or issue to be addressed

Received from

‘Reasonable adjustment’ made

Child with hearing loss

Couldn't always hear tambourine at different times of the day, e.g tidy up

Teacher

Staff attached colourful long ribbon to tambourine.

Cochlear implant

Speech and Language difficulty

Ensuring the child is hearing what they need to hear

Teacher

Advisor from AfC liaised with Early Years Foundation Stage teacher. Strategies from Speech and Language Therapy introduced into daily routine. Visual timetables. All nursery teachers trained on how to communicate effectively with the child.

Hearing impairment

Hearing effectively in classrooms

Teacher

Soundfield system installed in classrooms where hearing impaired children are based. Teachers to wear 'radio aids' to connect to hearing aids of children in their class.

Hearing impairment

Impaired hearing

Teacher

Radio microphone - rooms he is timetabled in are carpeted and more dead to sound - non echo.

Hearing impairment

Access to assemblies and mainstream lessons

Teacher

PA system that links to visual aids and cochlear implants.

Hearing impairment

Children can’t clearly hear input from class teacher. Too much background noise

Teacher

Hearing device (portable) used in classroom. Device worn by teacher so her voice is carried to child.

Speech

Unable to communicate clearly with friends, peers, staff

Teacher

Personal Ipad - communicator to be used by a child when addressing needs and verbal communication becomes difficult.

Further advice

ADHD 

Hearing Impairment

  • Information is used by a local school for assisting children and young people with hearing impairments  - download here (opens a pdf)

Further Education